Fixing Red Eyes

"Red Eye" is caused by two factors that must both be present:

  1. The irises of the subject must be dialated, i.e. in a low light setting
  2. The Flash must be in close proximity to the camera's lens

Because both of these factors must be present, there are different techniques to avoid the red eye effect:

  1. Constrict the irises of the subject. Manufacturers of small cameras without a hot shoe (for external flash) will choose this approach and accomplish it by "pre" flashing the subject.
  2. A better approach in my opinion is to move the flash away from the camera by using an external flash and even bouncing the flash off of a wall or ceiling.